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  2020NIAN9YUE1RIQI,NONGYENONGCUNBU、GONGYEHEXINXIHUABU、SHENGTAIHUANJINGBU、SHICHANGJIANGUANZONGJUDENGSIBUMENLIANHEBANBUDE《NONGYONGBOMOGUANLIBANFA》KAISHISHISHI,DUINONGMOSHENGCHAN、XIAOSHOU、SHIYONG、HUISHOU、ZAILIYONGJIJIANGUANDENGHUANJIEYUYIGUIFAN。《NONGYONGBOMOGUANLIBANFA》SHIWEILEJIAQIANGNONGYONGBOMOJIANDUGUANLI,FANGZHINONGMOWURAN,BAOHUHEGAISHANNONGYESHENGTAIHUANJING,LUOSHI《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》DEYOULIJUCUO。

  YU2020NIAN1YUEGUOJIAFAZHANGAIGEWEIHESHENGTAIHUANJINGBU《GUANYUJINYIBUJIAQIANGSULIAOWURANZHILIDEYIJIAN》ZHONGGUANYUJINZHIXIAOSHOUHOUDUXIAOYU0.01HAOMIDEJUYIXINONGYONGDIMODEYAOQIUYIYANG,《NONGYONGBOMOGUANLIBANFA》DEFABUSHISHIZAIYICIYINQILESHEHUIDUINONGMOCANLIUWURANWENTIDEGUANZHU,DIMOFUGAIJISHUHEQUHECONG,NONGMOWURANYINGGAIRUHEFANGZHI,CHULUHEZAI?WEICINONGYENONGCUNBUNONGMOWURANFANGKONGZHONGDIANSHIYANSHIGENJUYIYOUDEYANJIUJIEGUO,TICHUYIXIEKANFAHEYIJIAN,XIWANGHUIDAGUANYUZHEIGEWENTIDEBUFENSHEHUIGUANQIE。

  一、地膜覆盖是我国农亚博APP安全供应的关键举措之一,决不能因噎废食,要客观认识地膜覆盖技术应用的重要性

  WOGUOMEINIANNONGZUOWUBOZHONGMIANJIBAOCHIZAI24YIDUOMU,ZHUYAOZUOWUFUMOMIANJIJIN3.0YIMU,NONGZUOWUDIMOFUGAIBILVZAI12.7%ZUOYOU;QIZHONGYANCAO、DASUANHEMIANHUAZHONGZHIZHONGDIMOFUGAIJISHUYINGYONGBILVJIAOGAO,JUNCHAOGUO70%,QICISHIJIAGONGFANQIE、XIANGRIKUI、TIANCAIHESHUCAIDENG,YINGYONGBILVZAI25%~50%。YUMI、ZALIANGHEGUAGUODEDIMOFUGAIJISHUYEDEDAODAMIANJIYINGYONG,YINGYONGBILVCHAOGUO10%。DIMOFUGAIJISHUNENGGOUDAFUDUTIGAONONGZUOWUCHANLIANG,YIBANZUOWUZENGCHANLVZAI20%~30%,GENJUCHUBUGUSUAN,WOGUODIMOFUGAIJISHUSHINONGZUOWUZENGCHANSUODAILAIDEZHIJIEJINGJIXIAOYIZAI1200—1400YIYUAN/NIAN。RUDIMOFUGAIJISHUGAIBIANLEWOGUOMIANHUASHENGCHANDEQUYUBUJU,XINJIANGNEILUMIANQUCHENGWEIWOGUOMIANHUADEZHUYAOCHANQU,JINNIANLAI,XINJIANGMIANHUABOZHONGMIANJI3700DUOWANMU,ZHANQUANGUO70%YISHANG,CHANLIANGZHAN83%;2019NIANQUANJIANGSHENGCHANPIMIAN500.2WANDUN,DIMOFUGAIJISHUGONGXIANLEQUANGUO39%DEMIANHUACHANLIANG,ZENGJIAZHIJIEJINGJIXIAOYIJIN240YIYUAN。SUOYI,DIMOFUGAIJISHUYINGYONGDUIWOGUONONGYESHENGCHANHENONGYABOAPPANQUANGONGJIDEGONGXIANYINGGAIDEDAOCHONGFENKENDING。

  二、农田地膜残留已对我国农业生产产生了直接危害和损失,须直面问题,寻找解决之道

  MUQIAN,DIMOCANLIUYIJIJUBUDIQUDENONGYESHENGCHANHEHUANJINGZAOCHENGLEBULIDEYINGXIANGHEWEIHAI,YOUQISHIXINJIANGNEILUMIANQU。ZHUYAOTIXIANZAI3GEFANGMIAN,YISHIYINGXIANGMIANHUABOZHONGZUOYE,ZENGJIALAODONGLITOURU。ZAIXINJIANGMIANHUABOZHONGZUOYESHI,BOZHONGJIHOUZONGYAOGENRENCHULICANMO。JUCEDING,ZAICANMOWURANYANZHONGDEMIANTIAN,DIMOCANPIANJINRUBOZHONGJIYATUGUNTONGHOUHUIDUZHUCHUTUKOU,DAOZHIBOZHONGHOUDETIANCHUANGYANZIGAIBUSHANGTU;LINGWAI,DAPIANDIMOCANPIANCHANRAOYAMOLUNHUIDAOZHIYAMOLUNTINGZHIZHUANDONG,YINFABOXIAZHONGZIHEZHONGKONGCUOWEI。WEILEBIMIANSHANGSHUQINGKUANGFASHENG,YIBANBOZHONGJIXINGZOU1000MIZUOYOUSHI,JIUXUYAOTINGXIALAIDUIYATUGUNTONG、YAMOLUN、KAIGOUPIANHEFUPIANSHANGDECANMOJINXINGQINGLI,FANGZHIHEBIMIANBOZHONGKONGMEIYOUYATU、CANMOCHANRAOZUOYEJIJUBUJIAN,YANZHONGYINGXIANGLEBOZHONGZUOYEXIAOLVHEZHILIANG。ERSHIZENGJIANONGSHIZUOYEGONGXU,JIANGDIMIANHUACHANLIANGSHUIPING。YOUYUDIMOCANLIU,MEINIANMIANHUASHOUHUOHOUHEDIERNIANBOZHONGQIANXUYAOJINXINGDIMOHUISHOU,MEIMUZENGJIAZUOYECHENGBEN30YUAN,XINJIANGQUANQUDIMOHUISHOUZUOYEXUZENGJIATOURU11.4YIYUAN。TONGSHI,GUANCEJIEGUOXIANSHI,ZHANGQIFUMOMIANTIAN(30NIANYISHANG)RUGUOBUJINXINGDIMOHUISHOUCHULI,MIANHUADANCHANJIANGXIAJIANG5%YISHANG。SANSHIJIANGDIMIANHUAYABOAPPZHILIANG,YINGXIANGNONGMINJINGJISHOURU。CANMOSUIZHEJIXIECAISHOUHUNRUMIANHUA,SHIZAOCHENGXINJIANGMIANJIAGONGPINZHICHA、WUFASHIYINGGAODUANFANGZHIXUQIUDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。YIJUGUOJIABIAOZHUN《MIANHUAXIRONGMIAN》(GB1103-2007),PIMIANYIXINGXIANWEIHANLIANG0.8KE/DUNWEILINJIEZHI,ERMUQIANXINJIANGZIMIANDEDIMOCANPIANHANLIANGYIBANZAI2.0KE/DUNZUOYOU,JINGGUOJIXIEHERENGONGTIAOJIANHOU,PIMIANDIMOCANPIANHANLIANGYIBANZAI0.3-1.5KE/DUN,DAOZHIPIMIANJIAGEXIAJIANG600—1000YUAN/DUN,BUFENCANMOLIANGTAIGAODAOZHIPIMIANCHUYUWANQUANWUSHICHANGZHUANGTAI。RUGUOANZHAO2019NIANXINJIANG500WANDUNPIMIANZHONGYOUYIBANSHOUDAOYINGXIANG,ERSHIMIANHUAPINZHIJIANGDI2GEDENGJI,JIAGEJIANGJIANGDI800YUAN/DUNZUOYOU,ZEZHIJIEJINGJISUNSHIJIANGGAODA20YIYUAN,YOUCIKEJIANDIMOCANLIUYINGXIANGMIANHUAPINZHISUOZAOCHENGDEJINGJISUNSHISHISHIFENJUDADE。

  CHULEXINJIANGMIANHUASHENGCHANSHOUDAOYINGXIANG,CHANSHENGJINGJISUNSHIWAI,HUABEIDIQUDEHUASHENGYINDIMOCANLIUZAOCHENGDESUNSHIYERIYIYANZHONG。JINNIANLAI,HUASHENGZHONGZHIZHONGCAIYONGDIMOFUGAIJISHUYUELAIYUEPUBIAN,YOUQIHUABEIDIQUDESHANDONGSHENGHEHEBEISHENGYIJIDONGBEIDIQU,DIMOFUGAISHIHUASHENGDANCHANZENGJIA20%~30%。JUGUSUAN,HUASHENGFUMOZHONGZHIMIANJIZHANQUANGUOHUASHENGZONGBOZHONGMIANJIDE27%ZUOYOU,MIANJIDAGAIZAI1866WANMU,DIMOFUGAIZAITIGAOHUASHENGDANCHANDETONGSHI,SHOUHUOHOUDIMOCANLIUYEJIHUASHENGJIEGANLIYONGDAILAIBULIYINGXIANG。ANZHAO1866WANMUFUMOHUASHENGJISUAN,JIANGCHANSHENGHUASHENGJIEGAN467WANDUN(MUCHANHUASHENGYANG250QIANKEZUOYOU,DANJIA0.6-0.8YUAN/QIANKE),WEILELIYONGHUASHENGJIEGANZUOWEISHENGCHUSILIAO,NONGMINBUDEBUJINXINGQUMOCHULI,MEIMUHUASHENGYANGCHULICHENGBENZAI30-50YUAN/MU(QUANBUCHULIXUYAOZENGJIA6YI-10YIYUANDETOURU)。DIMOCANLIUYIFANGMIANDAOZHIHUASHENGYANGZHILIANGJIANGDI,TONGSHIYEJIADALEHUASHENGJIEGANZUOWEISILIAODESHENGCHANCHENGBEN。

  三、农田微塑料、塑化剂和重金属等是否来自农膜已成为热点话题,须科学客观评估,回应社会关切

  SULIAOWURAN、WEISULIAOWURANSHIMUQIANSHEHUIGUANQIEDEREDIANHUATI,ZAIQUANQIUFANWEIKAN,SULIAOWURANZHONGDIANHAISHIZAIHAIYANG、HELIUZHONG,TURANGSULIAOWURANXIANGDUIERYANSHUYUBIJIAOXIAOZHONGDE、ZHIHOUDEYANJIUDIANHEHUATI。DUIWOGUOERYAN,YOUYUDIMOFUGAIYINGYONGDETESHUXING(QUANQIUDIMOYONGLIANG74%ZAIZHONGGUO),NONGTIANTURANGDIMOCANLIUSHIWOGUOTEYOUDEWURANWENTI,ZHEIZHONGWURANDEXIANZHUANGHEWEIHAI,YOUQISHITURANGZHONGWEIXIAOSULIAOSHULIANGHEWEIHAIJIBENSHANGSHUYUKONGBAI。2020NIAN7YUE13RI,LILIANZHENZAI《ZIRAN-KECHIXUXING》ZAIXIANFABIAODELUNWENZHONGFAXIAN,NAMIJISULIAOKELI(DAYUE50NAMI)KEYICHUANTOUZHIWUGENBUJINRUZHIWUZUZHIZHONG,WEISULIAOJINRULERENLEIDESHIWULIAN。YOUKEXUEJIAYOUCIRENWEI“TURANGZHONGDEWEISULIAOKENENGSHIYIGEGENGYANZHONGDEHUANJINGWENTI”。ZAIDANGJINSULIAOWUSUOBUZAIDESHIDAI,GUANYUNONGTIANSULIAOWURANDEWENTI,WOMENJIBUNENGWUDONGYUZHONG,YEJUEBUKEGUOFENKUADA,ERSHIXUYAOJIAKUAIZHEIFANGMIANDEYANJIUHEZONGHEPINGGU,JINKUAICHENGWEIZHENGFUJUECEDEJISHUZHICHENG。

  GUOQUJINIANLAI,NONGYENONGCUNBUNONGMOWURANFANGKONGZHONGDIANSHIYANSHIGENJUSHIYANHEYIYOUDEWENXIAN,DECHULEYIXIACHUBUJIELUN。

  (一)农田地膜残留污染影响土壤生物的生长发育

  QIUYINSHITURANGZHONGSHENGWULIANGZUIDADEDONGWULEIQUNZHIYI,ZHANTURANGDONGWUSHENGWUZONGLIANGDE60%,CHANGYONGYUTURANGWURANJIANDING。YANJIUXIANSHI,HUANJINGNONGDUJUYIXIYUANWEISULIAOKENENGYINQIQIUYINCHANGDAOSUNSHANG,DANBAIZHI、BAOHEZHIFANGSUANHANLIANGSHENGGAODENGMIANYIYINGJIFANYING;GAONONGDUWEISULIAOWURANKEZAIDUANQINEIYINQIMINGXIANQUBIFANYING,BINGYANZHONGJIANGDIQIUYINSHENGZHANGSUDU,YIZHIZIDAIFUHUASHULIANG。SUISULIAOPEIFANGCHAYIKEBIAOXIANCHUMINGXIANBUTONGDESHENGWUDUXINGXIAOYING,RUJUBENYIXIWEISULIAOZAI1%ZHILIANGNONGDUXIAJIKEXIANZHUYIZHIQIUYINSHENGZHANGBINGZAOCHENGQIUYINSIWANG。ZONGTIERYAN,HUANJINGWURANNONGDUTIAOJIANXIADEWEISULIAODUXINGXIAOYINGRENGYOUDAIJINYIBUYANJIU,DANGAOWURANNONGDUXIA,YUJUYIXIDIMOYUANWEISULIAOXIANGBI,SHENGWUJIANGJIEDIMOCAILIAOBIAOXIANCHUMINGXIANZENGQIANGDEDUXINGXIAOYING,KEZAIDUANSHIJIANNEIDUIQIUYINQUBIXINGWEI、SHENGZHANGFAYU、SHENGCUNHEFANZHICHANSHENGMINGXIANYINGXIANG。

  (二)地膜覆盖和残留对土壤塑化剂的贡献有限

  NONGYABOAPPZHONGSUHUAJISHIYIGESHEHUIGONGZHONGJIWEIGUANXINDEWENTI,YOURENRENWEIDIMOCANLIUSHINONGYABOAPP,YOUQISHIGUAGUO、SHUCAILEISUHUAJIDELAIYUAN。2020NIAN,WOMENDUIQUANGUO100DUOGEDIMOYANGPINJIANCEJIEGUOXIANSHI,DIMOZHONG6ZHONGZHUYAOSUHUAJINONGDUWEI14.6HAOKE/QIANKE,YUANYUANDIYUFEILIAOBIAOZHUNBIAOSUHUAJIHANLIANGXIAOYU25HAOKE/QIANKEDEYAOQIU(GB 38400-2019),ANZHAOZHEIGEBIAOZHUNJISUAN,DIMOFUGAIHECANLIUWURANYUNONGYABOAPPSUHUAJISIHUBINGMEIYOUZHIJIEGUANLIAN。YINCI,GUANYUZHEIGEWENTI,SHEHUISHANG,BAOKUOXUESHUJIEDOUCUNZAIJIAODAZHENGYI,NONGYABOAPPANQUANWUXIAOSHI,DIMOFUGAIJICANLIUWURANSHIFOUYUNONGYABOAPPZHONGSUHUAJICHAOBIAOCUNZAIGUANLIAN,SHIYIGEXUYAORENZHENDUIDAIDEWENTI,YINGGAIYOUMINGQUEHEQINGXIDEDAAN。

  (三)地膜覆盖和残留与土壤重金属问题无关

  2020NIAN,DUIQUANGUO50GEDIMOYANGPINZHONGJINSHUHANLIANGCEDINGJIEGUOXIANSHI,DIMOZHONGQUESHICUNZAIYIDINGHANLIANGDEZHONGJINSHU,DANGENJU《TURANGHUANJINGZHILIANGBIAOZHUN(XIUDING)GB 15618—2008》ZHONGYOUGUANTURANGWUJIWUDEHUANJINGZHILIDIERJIBIAOZHUNDEYAOQIU,DIMOZHONGZHONGJINSHUHANLIANGDOUDIYUTURANGZHONGJIZHONGZHONGJINSHUDEZUIDIYAOQIU,DIMOZHONGZHONGJINSHUDUITURANGDEYINGXIANGBUCUNZAI。TONGSHI,DIMOSHIYIZHONGDIMIANFUGAICAILIAO,TAJIBENSHANGFUGAIZAINONGTIANBIAOMIAN,YONGLIANGYEJIQIYOUXIAN(DIMODAYUEZAI5QIANKE/MUZUOYOU,FEILIAOZAIDAYU100QIANKE/MUJI,GUANGAIYONGSHUIZE500—1000LIFANGMI/MU),JIAZHIDIMOCAILIAODEWENDINGXING,TAYUTURANGJIQIZUFENFASHENGSHENGWUHUAXUEFANYINGDEGUOCHENGWANQUANBUTONGYUFEILIAO、SHUIFENHENONGYAODENG,DIMOZHONGZHONGJINSHUYUANSUJINRUTURANGDEGUOCHENGJIANGSHIFENHUANMAN,DIMOZHONGZHONGJINSHUHUISUIZHEDIMOHUISHOUERLIKAINONGTIAN。YINCI,WOMENRENWEIDIMOZHONGZHONGJINSHUWENTISHIYIGEWEIMINGTI,BUSHIYIGEQIANZAIDEWENTI,YEMEIYOUHUANJINGFENGXIAN。

  四、我国农田农膜残留污染问题解决的出路在哪里

  (一)发达国家农膜处理和管理的模式

  TASHANZHISHIKEYIGONGYU,WOGUODEDIMOFUGAIJISHULAIZIRIBEN,NEIMERIBENDENGFADAGUOJIASHIRUHECHULIZHEIGEWENTIDENI?TAMENDEZUOFASHIFOUJUYOUJIEJIANYIYI?TONGGUODIAOCHALEJIEFAXIAN,QITAGUOJIAHEDIQUDIMOYINGYONGMIANJISHIFENYOUXIAN(YUEZHANZUOWUMIANJI10%),ZHONGDIANGUOJIAHEDIQUSHIRIBEN、HANGUO、OUZHOU、MEIGUOHENANMEIZHOUDENG,YIGAOHOUDU(20WEIMIYISHANG)、GAOQIANGDUDEDIMOZHANJUEDUIYOUSHI,YINGYONGDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHIJINGJIZUOWUHESHUCAIDENG,ZAIDATIANLIANGSHIZUOWUMIANJIHENXIAO。ZAIFUMOZUOWUSHOUHUOHOUJINXINGDIMOHUISHOUSHIGUOJISHANGTONGYONGDE、QIANGZHIXINGDEZUOFA,DANCHULIFANGSHICUNZAICHAYI。ZAIRIBEN,HUISHOUDIMOSHIZUOWEICHANYELAJIJINXINGCHULI,DUIDIMOSHIYONGZHE、CHULIZHEDEQUANYIJINXINGLEMINGQUEGUIDING,JIDIMOSHIYONGZHEYOUSHIYONGDIMODEQUANLI,DANYEFUYOUHUISHOU、QINGXIHEJIAOJICHULIQIYEDEYIWU。NONGMINBUFENFUFEIRANGXIANGGUANGONGYILEIQIYEHUOYABOAPPJIANGYONGHOUDIMOYUNZOUCHULI,ZHENGFUXUYAODUIDIMOHUISHOUCHULIJIYUYIDINGBILIDETOURU。ZAIOUZHOU,DABUFENGUOJIACAIYONGSHENGCHANZHEYOUXIANDUDEZERENYANSHENZHI,DIMOSHIYONGZHEZAIYONGHOUXUYAODUIDIMOJINXINGHUISHOUCHULI,BINGDUIFANGZAITIANTOU,DIMOSHENGCHANZHEHUOZHESHIWEITUOQIYE,ZAIZHENGFUZIZHUXIADUIDIMOJINXINGHUISHOUCHULI。

  (二)必须构建中国地膜回收处理生产者责任延伸机制

  XIANGBIQITAGUOJIA,WOGUODEDIMOYINGYONGJUYOUTESHUXING,TONGYANG,DIMOHUISHOUCHULIYEZHISHIJIN5NIANLAICAIKAISHISHOUDAOSHEHUIHEZHENGFUGAODUZHONGSHIDEYIGEWENTI。ZONGTIERYAN,WOGUODIMOHUISHOUCHULIHAIXIANGDUICUFANG,GUANYUDIMOHUISHOUCHULIDEFALV、FAGUIHEGUANLIBANFAYESHIJINJINIANKAISHIZHESHOUZHIDINGHEBANBU,DANGUANYUJUTIDESHISHIJIZHIHAIMEIYOUWANQUANJIANLI,HAIZAIMOSUOZHIZHONG。GENJUGUONEIWAIDIAOYAN,ZUOZHERENWEIXUYAOSHOUXIANMINGQUEZHENGFUBUMEN、DIMOSHENGCHANZHE、XIAOSHOUZHE、SHIYONGZHEDEQUANLI、ZERENHEYIWU,GOUJIANYOUDIMOCHANYELIANXIANGGUANFANGGONGTONGCHENGDANDEDIMOSHENGCHANZHEYOUXIANZERENYANSHENJIZHI。

  ZAIZHENGFUBUMENFANGMIAN,ZONGTISHANG,MINGQUEHUISHOUDIMOSHINONGYEDECHANYELAJI,ERBUSHIKEYIZIWOXUNHUANDEZIYUAN。ZHENGFUFUYOUDUIDIMOSHENGCHAN、XIAOSHOU、HUISHOUCHULIJIANGUANHEWENZEQUANLI,TONGSHIHAIYINGGAIWEIHUISHOUDIMOCHULICHENGDANYIDINGDEYIWUHEZEREN(TOURUYIDINGBILIDEZIJIN,HUOZHESHITONGGUOBUTIENONGMINJINXINGGENGDIDILIWEICHI,YOUNONGMINXIANGXIANGGUANDIMOHUISHOUQIYEJINXINGZHIFU。RIBENZHENGFUTOURULEDIMOCHULIFEIYONGDE1/3,WOGUOYINGGAITOURUDUOSHAOXUYAOJINXINGYANJIUQUEDING)。ZUOWEIDIMOSHIYONGZHE,JUYOUSHIYONGDIMODEQUANLI,DANTONGSHIBIXUCHENGDANXIANGYINGDEZERENHEYIWU,ZHUYAOSHIBIXUCHENGDANDIMOSHIYONGJIESHUHOUJIANGDIMOANZHAOYIDINGYAOQIUSHOUHUILAIBINGJINXINGSHIDANGCHULIDEZERENHEYIWU(ZHEIGEWENTIMUQIANBINGMEIYOUJINXINGMINGQUEGUIDING,YINGGAIJIEJIANRIBENHEOUZHOUDEJINGYAN,QIANGHUASHIYONGZHEQUANLIHEZERENYIWU)。ZUOWEIDIMOSHENGCHANZHEHEXIAOSHOUZHE,JUYOUTONGGUOSHENGCHANXIAOSHOUHEGEDIMOYABOAPPZHUANQULIRUNDEQUANLI,TONGSHI,ANZHAOGUOJIAHEDIFANGYOUGUANGUIDINGSHENGCHANHEGEDIMOYABOAPPZESHIBUKETUIXIEDEZERENHEYIWU,QIEYUDIFANGZHENGFU、DIMOSHIYONGZHEGONGTONGWANCHENGSHIYONGHOUDEDIMOHUISHOUCHULISHIQIYOUXIANYANSHENZEREN。ZAIZHEIYANGYIGEKUANGJIAXIA,ZAIXIANYUDANYUAN(HUOZHEXIANGZHEN)YINRUDIMOHUISHOUCHULIQIYE(ZHENGFUTONGGUOGOUMAIFUWUJIANGBUFENZIJINTOURUQIYE,DIMOSHENGCHANXIAOSHOUZHEBUTIEHUISHOUQIYE、HUISHOUDEDIMOCHULIHUODEBUFENCANZHI),ZHENGFUKAIZHANGUANLIHETOURU、SHENGCHANHEXIAOSHOUZHEBUFENBUTIEHUISHOUQIYE,SHIYONGZHETONGGUOLAODONGLITOURU,ZAIBUTONGQUYUGOUJIANSHIHEGEZISHIJIQINGKUANGDE、DUOFANGTOURUHECANYUDIMOHUISHOUCHULIXITONG,XINGCHENGKEYIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZIWOWEICHIYUNXINGDEXITONG。

  TONGSHI,BIXUDUIHUISHOUDIMODECHULIHEZAILIYONGJINXINGKEXUEPINGGU,CONGDUOWEIDUKAOLVHUISHOUDIMODECHULU,XINGCHENGKESHISHI、KELUODIDECHULIFANGFA。HUISHOUDIMODECHULIHEZAILIYONGDETUJINGDUOZHONGDUOYANG,DAODIXUANZEHEZHONGFANGFAQUJUEYUHUISHOUDIMOBENSHENDETEDIAN、SUOCHUDEHUANJINGJISUOYONGYOUDEJISHUHEJINGJITIAOJIAN,YINCISUOYOUDEZAILIYONGHECHULIFANGSHIYINGGAISHIKAIFANGDE,KEYIXUANZEDE。MUQIAN,JIXUDUIBUTONGHUISHOUDIMOCHULIFANGSHI(QIZHIDITOU、TIANMAI、JIUDIFENSHAO、KONGZHIFENSHAO、HUISHOUQINGXIZAOLI、HUISHOUJIANDANQINGLIMUSUYUANLIAODENGDENG)DESHENGTAI、JINGJIHEHUANJINGYINGXIANGJINXINGZONGHEPINGJIA,XINGCHENGHUISHOUDIMOXUANZECHULIHEZAILIYONGFANGSHIDEJISHUGONGJU,JIANGHUISHOUDAOTIANTOUDAOBIANDEDIMOKEXUECHULI,FANGZHICHANSHENGERCIWURANDEWENTI。(TONGXUNYUAN WANGJIA)

  ZUOZHEXIZHONGGUONONGYEKEXUEYUANNONGYEHUANJINGYUKECHIXUFAZHANYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUAN

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